Urine-based tumor markers
For some years now, it has been possible to detect tumor markers (proteins, antigens) indicative of bladder carcinoma in simple rapid urine tests. These tests are more comprehensive and more accurate than conventional urine tests, without any major effort on the part of the patient. To perform the test, a urine sample is given to the doctor. The result is available within a short time. If the test result is positive, bladder cancer is suspected. However, a definite diagnosis can only be made on the basis of a cystoscopy.