A palpation of the prostate gland, a suspicious area in the ultrasound or increased PSA values can indicate the presence of a prostate carcinoma.
Prostate biopsy is the removal of tissue from the prostate gland for examination by a pathologist under the microscope. The prostate biopsy is currently the only way to prove a malignant change in the prostate gland.
To prevent infection, an antibiotic is taken two days before the biopsy. When preparing a prostate biopsy, it is particularly important to also indicate the use of medication that alters blood clotting (e. g. aspirin, Marcumar, etc.).
The prostate biopsy is performed on an outpatient basis under local or short anaesthesia. Under ultrasound control, at least 12 biopsy specimens are taken from all areas of the prostate gland, or 18-24 if the prostate is larger. In addition, a targeted removal of tissue from conspicuous areas of the prostate may also occur. The locations of the respective sampling are documented in order to allocate them correctly for later planning of further treatment. The tissue samples are prepared and examined by a pathologist. If the suspicion of prostate cancer is confirmed, the degree of malignancy of the tumour cells is determined.
The prostate biopsy usually proceeds without complications. After the biopsy, small amounts of blood are often found in the urine, in the ejaculation or on the stool as well as a slight feeling of pressure in the rectum. In rare cases, pain, temperature increase, fever or chills can also occur. The doctor should be consulted immediately, as there is a possibility of prostate inflammation. Clarification is also necessary if there is increased postoperative bleeding from the rectum or urethra as well as circulatory problems.
Prostate biopsy is a safe procedure. According to today's knowledge, there is no proliferation of tumour cells in the canaliculus or the development of tumour metastases. Neither does it influence the growth behaviour of prostate cancer.