Glossary

Adenocarcinoma
Malignant tumour that forms in the glandular parts of an organ's mucous membrane. More than 95 percent of all prostate carcinomas are adenocarcinomas.

Adjuvant therapy
A treatment that supports or accompanies prostate surgery, radiotherapy or brachytherapy and minimizes the risk of relapse.

Acute Prostatitis
Inflammatory disease of the prostate. Bacteria and parasites enter the prostate through the urethra or bloodstream and cause acute purulent infection. Typical side effects are fever, sweating, chills and a frequent and painful urge to urinate.

Androgens
Male sex hormones (e. g. testosterone) produced by the testicles and in small quantities by the adrenal glands.

Androgen deprivation
Suppression of natural testosterone production by the administration of medication or surgical removal of the testicles.

Anti-androgens
Anti-androgens suppress the effect of testosterone by blocking its absorption into the cancer cell. There are two different classes of substances with similar effects: steroidal antiandrogens and non-steroidal antiandrogens.

External radiation
See External Radiation Therapy

Pelvic floor
Thick muscle layer that forms the floor of the pelvic cavity. The pelvic floor musculature is particularly important for maintaining continence as it supports the lower part of the urethra (urea).

Stress incontinence
During physical exertion (cough, sneezing) or tension, involuntary loss of urine occurs. This is also known as stress incontinence.

Biopsy
Microscopic examination of prostate tissue samples for the presence of tumor cells.

Benign prostatic hyperplasia
Benign enlargement of the prostate by proliferation of otherwise inconspicuous cells. Almost one in two men over the age of 50 suffers from benign prostatic hyperplasia.

brachytherapy
Innovative technology of modern radiotherapy in which high-dose radiation is introduced directly into the tumor tissue. The tumor cells are destroyed from the inside without damaging the surrounding tissue. Incontinence and impotence rates are significantly lower than in radical prostatectomy. A distinction is made between the permanent seed implantation (LDR brachytherapy) and the afterloading procedure (HDR brachytherapy).

chemotherapy
Treatment with a chemotherapeutic agent (cytostatic agent) to inhibit or reduce the growth of cancer cells.

Chronic Prostatitis
Bacterial prostate inflammation caused by bacteria resulting from an acute prostatitis that has not cured. Chronic prostatitis is accompanied by symptoms such as burning urination, frequent urge to urinate, discharge and uncharacteristic symptoms in the region of the lower abdomen and intestine.

Computed tomography (CT)
A special type of X-ray examination in which a multitude of layers of the body are examined, which together form a three-dimensional image.

dam
Range between scrotum and mast bowel outlet

Digital Rectal Examination (DRU)
Method of examination in which the urologist inserts a finger covered with a glove and lubricated into the rectum. Size and surface scans provide information on the nature of the prostate gland and possible hardening that may indicate a tumor. See also Palpation.

urge incontinence
Frequent, usually very strong urge to urinate, accompanied by involuntary loss of urine.

dysuria
Painful urge to urinate with difficult urination. Dysuria is often associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).

endoscope
Optical instrument for the examination of body cavities.

ejaculation
ejaculation

Erectile Dysfunction
Inability to achieve or maintain an erection long enough.

erection
Stiffening of the male limb.

External radiation therapy
Irradiation of the prostate from an external radiation source. Thanks to the technical progress in medicine, today high irradiation doses are possible while at the same time protecting the neighbouring organs.

remote metastases
Settlement of cancer cells in organs that are not in the immediate vicinity of the original tumor, e. g. bone metastases in prostate cancer.

Gleason Score
If prostate cancer is diagnosed, small tissue samples are taken from the prostate for a biopsy. A pathologist evaluates the tissue and assigns a Gleason-Grade/Score between 1 and 5 to two separate areas in the samples. The higher the sum (2 - 10), the more aggressive the cancer is.

GnRH agonists
GnRH agonists inhibit testosterone production, unlike the anti-androgens directly in the testicles.

grading
Evaluation of the degree of malignancy of tumours according to certain evaluation criteria. The less differentiated the more malignant a tumor is (G1: well differentiated, G2: little differentiated, G3: poorly differentiated, G4: undifferentiated).

Greenlight laser therapy
Minimally invasive procedure for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. The targeted release of laser energy causes the excess tissue of the prostate gland to evaporate gently and bloodlessly.

Benign prostate enlargement
See benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)

urinary incontinence
Uncontrolled urination. There are different types and degrees of urinary incontinence, see also stress and urge incontinence.

HDR afterloading
Modern radiotherapy, in which a tiny radiation source (Iridium-192) under ultrasound control irradiates the entire prostate in a few minutes. In contrast to seed implantation, the radiation source does not remain in the prostate. Irradiation is only temporary and is carried out 2 to 3 times at intervals of 1 week. HDR afterloading is a method of brachytherapy and is mainly used in advanced stage localized prostate cancer.

HIFU
The method uses a rectally introduced probe to expose the entire prostate to a highly intensive, focused ultrasound. By absorbing the sound, the tissue is heated up to 100° C and thus destroyed.

hormones
Substances of the body's own nature that are used to transmit information and control special processes in the body.

hormone treatment
The administration of drugs (anti-androgens or GnRH agonists) prevents the testosterone effect on the prostate. The hormone treatment leads to a slowing of the growth of the prostate (cancer) cells and partly to cell death (apoptosis).

immune system
System of the body's own defence system. Various factors, such as white blood cells, can render invaders such as bacteria and viruses as well as cancer cells harmless.

Imperative urge to urinate
A sudden, sudden urge to urinate that can only be suppressed with difficulty.

impotence
Poor erectile function of the male limb.

incontinence
involuntary stool or urine loss.

IPSS
International Prostate Symptom Score. Documentation sheet for the evaluation of symptoms and their severity in benign prostate enlargement.

calico nomogram
Probability tables estimating the chances of tumor-free operation, external radiation or brachytherapy for the next 5 or 7 years.

bone scintigraphy
Method of examination in which bone metastases are made visible with the aid of radioactive substances.

Curative therapy
Treatment to cure a disease.

libido
(Latin: desire, lust) Sex drive.

Life diode laser therapy
Minimally invasive procedure for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. The targeted release of laser energy vaporizes the excess tissue in the prostate gland. A major advantage over the Greenlight laser is the higher wattage of the diode laser and the associated greater evaporation effect. Especially patients with a large prostate benefit from life diode laser therapy.

Local therapy
Treatment for the elimination of cancer cells in the affected organ. If the tumour in prostate cancer is limited to the organ, cure (curative therapy) is possible in 90% of cases.

lymph node
Parts of the immune system. In humans, they are 5-10 mm in diameter. In the groin and neck they can reach a size of 20 mm. They trap bacteria or cancer cells that pass through the body in the lymph like a filter.

lymphadenectomy
Surgical removal of the lymph nodes with an increased risk of lymph node infestation. The operation is performed by means of a small abdominal incision or laparoscopically.

lymphoma
Swelling/Enlargement of the lymph nodes

Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRI)
Imaging procedure which, in contrast to computer tomography, is not associated with radiation exposure. Hydrogen atoms in the tissue emit measurable signals in response to an externally applied strong magnetic field, from which a three-dimensional image can be calculated.

malignantoma
Malignant tumor, cancer.

metastases
metastases of a malignant tumor. The spread of the tumour cells is usually carried out via the blood and lymph channels.

micturition
Natural urination of the bladder. If disturbances occur, they are referred to as urination disturbances.

Minimal invasive procedure
So-called "keyhole surgery": gentle surgical technique for the removal of tissue (e. g. lymph nodes, small tumours) by means of endoscopic instruments, which can be introduced by small incisions e. g. in the abdominal wall.

Neoadjuvant hormone therapy
Hormone treatment before surgery or radiation to inhibit the growth of cancer cells.

nocturia
Accumulated urination at night.

oncologist
Doctor specialising in the treatment of cancer.

palpation
Palpation. Since the prostate is located close to the rectum, the doctor can often sense an enlargement or tumour of the prostate from the rectum with his index finger. See also digital rectal examination

pathologist
Physician who identifies diseases and determines the malignancy of tumours by examining cells and tissues under the microscope.

PCA3 test
The Progensa PCA3 test is a molecular genetic analysis of urine developed in the USA. PCA3 is a gene that is expressed exclusively in prostate tissue and released into the urine. When prostate cells degenerate, the gene is particularly active and prostate cancer cells form 60-100 times more PCA3 than normal prostate tissue.

perineal
Through the dam.

pollakiuria
Frequent urge to urinate without increased urination.

forecast
Probable outcome or course of an illness; chance of recovery.

prostate
Male prostate gland. The prostate is located in the pelvis below the bladder and encloses the upper part of the urethra. It forms the main part of the seminal fluid.

Prostate carcinoma (PCa)
Malignant tumor of the prostate gland. Improved diagnostic capabilities mean that prostate cancer is increasingly being diagnosed at an early stage, limited to the prostate.

PSA
Abbreviation for prostate specific antigen. A protein that is produced by both normal prostate cells and cancer cells in the prostate gland. As a strongly increased PSA value or a high rate of increase of the PSA value indicate a malignant prostate tumor, the PSA test today complements the palpation and ultrasound examination within the scope of preventive measures.

PSA bounce (after brachytherapy)
These PSA variations after brachytherapy in prostate cancer are frequently observed and are triggered by the radiation effect on the prostate tissue. These temporary PSA increases usually occur months after a seed implantation and can be observed for more than 3 years. The PSA bounce occurs preferentially in younger men and in 45% of cases.

Radical prostatectomy
Surgery to remove the entire prostate. There are three different techniques: The prostatectomy can be performed retropubically (1) by an incision in the abdomen; (2) perineally by an incision between the scrotum and anus; or (3) laproscopically by laproscopic laparoscopy.

rectum
Last 15-20 cm of colon (end intestine); the rectum retains solid excretion products until they have left the body through the anus.

remission
Remission can be temporary or permanent.

recurrence
Recurrence of the disease after the treatment of carcinoma had already been completed.

seed implantation
A method of brachytherapy that is gentle on organs and has little side effects. During seed implantation, seeds are introduced into the prostate with the help of fine hollow needles under ultrasound control and remain there permanently. This procedure is used for localized carcinomas.

sonography
An imaging method in which high-frequency sound waves (ultrasound) are reflected from tissue and the echo signals are converted into an image (sonogram).

staging
In oncology, staging is the diagnostic procedure following the diagnosis of a malignant tumor. It serves to determine the degree of dispersal and thus as a basis for the therapy decision.

radiation therapy
Application of ionizing high-energy radiation (gamma radiation, X-rays, electrons, neutrons, protons, carbon ions) for therapeutic purposes, mostly in malignant tumor diseases.

Systemic Therapy
Therapy through which cancer cells can be reached and treated throughout the entire organism.

testosterone
Male sex hormone produced in the testicles. As prostate cancer usually grows testosterone dependent, its growth can be limited by suppressing testosterone production. See also hormone treatment.

neoplasm
Degenerate tissue mass which may be benign or malignant.

tumor marker
substances, their occurrence or elevated concentrations indicate the presence of a (malignant) tumour.

Transrectal ultrasound
Diagnostic procedure for examining the prostate from the rectum.

Transurethral needle ablation (TUNA)
Minimally invasive treatment method for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. The excess prostate tissue is destroyed by high-frequency current.

Transurethral prostate resection (TURP)
Surgical procedure for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Excess prostate tissue is removed through the urethra by means of an electric loop. The prostate capsule remains intact.

urethra
Urethra; drains urine or seminal fluid from the body.

Watchful waiting
Observational waiting "; the condition of the patient is observed and controlled. The therapy is only initiated when significant changes in disease or symptoms occur.

cytostatic drugs
Medication that prevents cell division and thus interferes with cancer growth.

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